Dale C. S. Destin |
The September 2016 to February 2017 climate outlooks are now available for Antigua and Barbuda. Over the long-term (September-February), above to near normal rainfall is expected. However, in the short-term – September to November (SON), below to near normal rainfall is expected. The droughts are more likely than not to remain as is or end over the short-term. Meanwhile, uncomfortably warm temperatures are expected for the upcoming six months, especially during the short-term.
August 2016 is the wettest since 2011 and the wettest of any month since November 2014. It was a wetter than normal August with an island-average of 130.3 mm (5.13 in). Notwithstanding, it was not wet enough to end the droughts, which have gone past 38 months.
Looking forward – there is a moderate chance (55%) of the droughts either not getting worse or ending during the period SON. Conversely, there is also a moderate chance of the SON period having below normal rainfall. Notwithstanding, over the long run, above to near normal rainfall is expected. Thus, drought watches are in effect instead of warnings.
The warm phase of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) – El Nino, came to an end in May. At which time, the chance of a cold phase i.e. La Nina was in excess of 75%. However, as of this month, the probability of La Nina is at 55% and declining.
If you are in our part of the world – the Caribbean, a La Nina would be more than welcome. Unlike El Nino, La Nina often brings us more than usual rainfall. Hence, given our severe water crisis of the past three years, to not have a La Nina as “promised” would be a great disappointment.
The rains over the past weeks have put a huge dent into the droughts. We are experiencing one of our wettest, if not wettest September in over 20 years. There is optimism that a few of the droughts have ended. More will be said on this, after a full assessment, by the middle of October.
Precipitation and temperature
Year-to-date, Antigua, on average, has had more than twice the amount of rainfall than for the same period last year. Notwithstanding, we are still over three inches in the “red” relative to the long-term average for January-August of 647.7 mm (25.50 in).
This up-tick in rainfall has a reasonable chance of continuing over the long-term: September 2016 to February 2017, there is an 80% probability of above to near normal rainfall. However, the projected rainfall for 2016 is 657 to 1218.5 mm (25.9-48.0 in) or below to near normal.
For the seasons SON (autumn) and DJF (winter), there are equal chances of below, near or above normal mean temperatures. However, over the long-term, mean temperatures are likely to be above normal. Higher than usual night-time low temperatures are likely to continue through November, resulting in continued uncomfortable warmer nights.
The hurricane season
We are passed the peak days of the hurricane season for us and for the season overall. However, we are still very much in the most active period of the hurricane season – August to October. Thus far, the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season has produced, 12 named storms, four hurricanes and one major hurricane.
The 12 named storms are 50% more than the average of 8 to date [September 25]. However, the accumulated energy (ACE) index which matters most, is less than 50% of the average of 106. The relatively low ACE is indicative of the fact that the storms have been generally weak.
The forecast is for a near normal season with around 15 named storms, 7 becoming hurricanes and 3 major hurricanes; this includes those already formed.
Notwithstanding the forecast, we need to be fully prepared, as it only takes one hurricane to set our life and community back by decades. Be prudent: prepare for the worst and hope for the best!
See the following links for the full outlooks: September 2016, September-November 2016, December 2016-February 2017, September 2016-February 2017, Drought, 2016 Updated Hurricane Season Forecast.
The next set of outlooks will be available by October 5, 2016.